The occurrence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) at a national level or in large regional areas is an issue difficult to determine in a cost-effective way, integrating both human and animal data, and thus leading to effective control measures. In Portugal, the abattoirs in north Douro region receive a large percentage of heads of cattle from the whole country which makes them ideal places for the implementation of a surveillance system for this zoonosis. Data was obtained for cattle slaughtered in 9 abattoirs in north region of Douro River, with visible CE-like cysts at meat inspection. An excel database was constructed with the records of condemned viscera due to hydatid cysts in cattle for 2008, 2009, 2010, and the first half of 2011. Most of the cysts were found in the lungs and livers (23.5%), only in livers (21.5%) or only in lungs (18.1%). Individual information concerning each animal contributed to the depiction of a distribution map by regions of the occurrence of positive cases in Portugal. From the 149 cases registered, it was possible to identify the place of infection in 93 cases (62.4%), in which the rate of distribution was 21 (22.6%) in the north, 14 (15.1%) in the center, 57 (61.3%) in Alentejo and 1 case (1.1%) in Algarve. This distribution of cases coincides with the location of human and animal cases reported before, with special focus on the Alentejo and in the northeast of the country.
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Exogenously Treated Carnitine Upregulates the Contents of Macro and Microelements in the Leaves of Maize (Zea Mays Cv. Hido) Seedlings
Carnitine, a common compound in living organisms, is involved in a number of metabolic functions from lipid metabolism to defense metabolism
Malnutrition remains a concern in the central province, despite being the most productive province in terms of Agriculture. Most studies in the province have not paid attention to the importance of women empowerment and the nutrition outcomes of the population. In light of this knowledge gap, this study focused on the Women’s empowerment and the nutrition status of children aged 6-59 months.
Decision-Making in Mastitis Prevention and Control at Regional, Herd and Individual Levels Based on Epidemiological and Economic Studies
The objective of this review is to describe results of epidemiological and economic studies carried out in Brazil that can assist in the decision making process at the region, herd and individual levels for the prevention and control of bovine mastitis. At regional and herd-levels, we present data from a time series analysis comparing somatic cell counts in herds located in Brazil and in the United States (US), an estimation of the prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in a specific population of herds located at the state of Minas Gerais, and finally we report the identification of risk factors for new and chronic intramammary infections within herds located at the state of Santa Catarina. The outcomes of epidemiological studies that support the decision making process at herd- and individual-level are related to the decrease in prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in the herd as well as the estimate of the economic impact of mastitis occurrence.